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452                  HISTORY OF PERSIA                 CHAP.
by his subjects in favour of Mohamed Yusuf, a Sadozai,
who in order to avenge the death of Kamran Mirza put
his rival to death. Mohamed Yusuf, who had long resided
in exile at Meshed, was rightly regarded as a Persian
nominee. Dost Mohamed, who by the recent death of
Kuhendil Khan had gained Kandahar, was most anxious
for Great Britain to take action in defence of her interests
at Herat, and when this step was deprecated as premature
he proposed himself to attack the city with an Afghan
The Occupation of Herat by Persia, 1856.—Meanwhile,
as already stated, Persia was recklessly bent on breaking
the treaty of 1853, and in the spring of 1856 a Persian
army marched on Herat, where it was welcomed by
Mohamed Yusuf. Shortly afterwards there was a rising
against the overbearing Persians, and Mohamed Yusuf
hoisted the British flag and appealed for aid to Dost
Mohamed. As the result of a second rising, however,
Mohamed Yusuf was seized and sent a prisoner to the
Persian camp. His deputy, Isa Khan, held the city for
some months, but in October, 1856, the science of a
French engineer, M. Buhler, brought about its fall, and
Persian possession of Herat was at last made good.
The Second British Treaty with Dost Mohamed, 1857.
—Action was then taken by Great Britain against Persia in
two ways, one of which was indirect; for by a second treaty,
concluded in January, I857,1 Dost Mohamed was granted
a subsidy of a lac of rupees per month during the con-
tinuation of the war, on condition that the money was
spent on his army. Muskets also were supplied to him
in large numbers. Dost Mohamed, however, made no
attack on Herat, and exercised little or no influence on
the course of the war, which lasted for only a short
British Operations against Persia, 1856-1857,—The
direct action was a declaration of war,most reluctantly made,
by Great Britain against Persia. Few wars have resembled
that which followed. The usual question is how to injure
an enemy most effectively, but on this occasion the efforts
1 The text is given in Rawliason's work, App. III.